1. Battery Technologies
In an electric car, the most crucial and the most expensive element is the battery and it presently contributes for around 50% of its cost. it’s estimated that this percentage will drop to 18% by 2030, according to research by Bloomberg New Energy Finance. For electric vehicles to compete with internal combustion engines, battery prices must reduce by more than half, according to the research. To attain greater ranges, faster charging times, and improved safety, companies and research institutions throughout the world are conducting large-scale innovation initiatives.
The most frequently used battery in electric vehicles worldwide is the family of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, which are mostly based on a mixture of cobalt, manganese, nickel, graphite, and other key elements. Solid-state, aluminum-ion, lithium-sulfur, graphene-based supercapacitors, and lithium-air batteries are examples of other kinds of batteries. Most of these are already in development, while others are still in the planning phases.
2. Challenges for Manufacturer:
The most significant difficulty affecting battery producers is the restricted worldwide supply of lithium and cobalt which are the two crucial components in the production of lithium-ion batteries. As per the United States Geological Survey, lithium-ion batteries which are used in mobile phones and the rising electric car sector account for around 49 percent of worldwide cobalt consumption. Congo is a politically unstable zone where most of the world’s cobalt deposits are situated. In Congo, running a business is often unexpected and immoral that producers struggle to compete in the coming years.
3. The technological breakthrough of lithium-ion battery
• To eliminate the liquid electrolyte part of lithium-ion batteries, Toyota discovered a technique in November 2016. This results in a significantly more reliable power source. The new batteries, which are projected to be available in 2021, offer double the energy density of lithium-ion cells and on a single charge, they can drive electric vehicles over 300 miles.
• Graphene-assisted lithium-ion batteries, developed by Huawei’s Watt Laboratory in December 2016, can operate at temperatures up to 60 degrees Celsius, which is 10 degrees higher than the current limit. According to the company’s estimations, this allows the batteries to function for twice as long as regular lithium-ion batteries do.
• Anode material Titan Niobium Oxide was introduced by Toshiba in October 2017. After six minutes of quick charging, existing batteries now have a twice as large anode and are anticipated to give EVs a 320 km range. This will allow electric vehicles to go more than three times as far as they can now.
• A novel method for improving lithium-ion battery efficiency was disclosed by researchers from Shinshu University in Japan in February 2018. This was achieved by developing a cubic crystal layer between the battery’s electrodes.
• WMG department researchers at Warwick University declared to have discovered a breakthrough technique. This new technique will allow lithium-ion batteries to be charged up to five times quicker than existing limits.
• Researchers at Texas A&M University’s College of Engineering will integrate carbon nanotubes into a lithium metal battery’s electrode in July 2020, which may significantly cut charging durations.
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